A Star Glaskralen Long Ago and Far Away


The 2021 Nobel glaskralen Prize in Physics was shared by Dr. Saul Perlmutter (Supernova Cosmology Project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and the University of California), Dr. Brian P. Schmidt (Supernova High-z Search Team at National University). Australia) and Dr. Adam G. Riess (The High-z Supernova Search Team and Johns Hopkins University and Space Telescope Science Institute) for the discovery of dark energy.

But alas, even today there is still more to know about dark energy than is known. Scientists know how much dark energy is present. and how dark energy influences the expansion of the universe. However, everything about it is a complete mystery. It is known that dark energy accounts for 68% of the universe, 27% of dark matter, and the rest. Everything that has ever been observed with a tool everything glaskralen in our world And so-called “ordinary” atomic matter — accounting for less than 5% of the universe. Dark matter makes up most of the material in the universe. And it’s something that’s terrifying and invisible. It is believed to consist of exotic, non-atomic particles that do not interact with light or other forms of electromagnetic radiation. However, it is generally thought that dark matter is actually there because it influences visible things such as stars and galaxies through gravity. In this way, even though dark matter is transparent and hallucinating, But it leaves the curious observer aside.

Astronomers who discovered the existence of dark energy at the end of the last decade of the 20th century originally searched for signs that the universe was slowing down in its expansion. enough to stop the expansion of the universe. And this will cause the universe to collapse again in small patches. It was as magnificent as it was before the Big Bang was born about 13.8 billion years ago, but astronomers couldn’t find what they were looking for. They found something else And their accidental discovery won the 2011 Nobel Prize in Physics for them.

Astronomers detect the rapid expansion of the universe using fatal stellar explosions known as Type Ia supernovae. A great “standard candle”, as each bright explosion is thought to emit the same amount of light. This allows astronomers to use the brightness of the Type Ia supernova to measure its distance. Then measure the red change. An object’s redshift depends on how much light is stretched from the expansion of the universe. Redshifts are defined to calculate how fast a supernova leaves Earth. This is a technique that has revealed to astronomers the surprising news that the expansion of the universe has accelerated rapidly for about 5 billion years.

However, they were as bright as a supernova. They are difficult to observe when they are in distant regions of the universe. The more objects in space Objects get older with time.

Catch a dark and mysterious chameleon

Dark energy could be integrated into the structure of space. which is the cosmological constant at Albert Einstein once stated in the equations of general relativity. and was later seen as a mistake. Or maybe it’s the quintessence. which is represented by a hypothetical particle

In 2004, Dr. Justin Curie 0f of the University of Pennsylvania And a co-author of a 2015 study outlines a possible solution to the intriguing mystery of why dark energy particles are so frustratingly elusive. They hide from them. Looking for them, Dr. Khoury proposes dark energy particles, which he calls chameleons. will have different masses depending on the density of the surrounding matter. which changes its appearance according to the environment.

In the vast and dark void of space, chameleons occupy little mass and exert great distances in cosmology. and they have the power to push space apart. which has matter that exists around every corner They will have a much larger mass and only a small reach. in physics, The low mass represents the long-range force. While high mass indicates short-range forces, this is one way to explain why space-domestic energy is extremely difficult to detect in a lab.

“The chameleon field is bright in the empty space. But as soon as it enters the object, it becomes very heavy, so it only matches the outermost layer of the larger object. not with internal parts, It pulls only at the outermost nanometers, Dr. Muller explains at a University of California, Berkeley news conference on Aug. 20, 2015.

The story behind the new theory began in August 2014 when Berkeley doctoral student Dr. Paul Hamilton read an article by theorist Dr. Clare Burrage (University of Nottingham). The UK) describes techniques that can be used to observe Some hidden and elusive particles, such as the ever-changing chameleon. He also began to consider atomic interferometers that he and Dr. Will Muller built at Berkeley to be able to detect chameleons? if they actually exist

In fact, Dr. Muller and his colleagues have built the most sensitive force detector on Earth. Using them to find very small gravitational anomalies that would suggest a problem with Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Even the most sensitive detectors are too large to sense short-range chameleon forces. But the scientists immediately realized that one of the less sensitive atomic probes could do the trick.

Dr. Burrage recommends measuring the gravitational force produced by the chameleon field between the atom and the heavier mass. Instead of the attraction between two heavy masses, This will cause the chameleon field to press over until it is invisible.

This is what Dr. Hamilton, Dr. Muller and colleagues did They dropped cesium atoms from above an inch-diameter aluminum sphere. Then a laser was used to measure the force on the atom as it somersaulted freely for about 10 to 20 milliseconds. They found no force other than the gravity of our planet. This observation effectively eliminates a number of possible energies for the elusive particle.

“Holger has eliminated lizards that interact with the normal matter much more strongly than gravity. But now he is pushing his experiments to areas where chameleons interact on the same scale as gravity. They tend to exist,” Dr. Curie explained on Aug. 20, 2015, Berkeley news release. Their experiment may also reduce the search for other dark energy sources. hypothetically screened

Similar experiments were performed at CERN in Geneva, Switzerland, and the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Illinois. as well as additional tests using a neutron interferometer. is searching for a hidden chameleon which until now has not been successful. Dr. Muller and his team are improving experiments to isolate all other particle energies or find evidence that chameleons exist in the best scenarios.

“In the worst-case, We will learn more about what dark energy is. Hopefully, that will help us better understand what it is. One day someone will be lucky and find it,” Dr. Muller commented in an August 20, 2015, Berkeley press release.

Judith E. Braffman-Miller is a writer and astronomer whose articles have been published since 1981 in magazines, journals, and newspapers. Although she writes on a wide variety of topics, she especially likes to write about astronomy because it gives her the opportunity to communicate with others. To the many miracles in her field Her first book, “Wisps, Ashes, and Smoke” will be published shortly.

General care guide for chameleons

I’m sure you own a pet. Like most people, however, you want something a little different. what you are missing It can only be described in one word…chameleon! This pet will be your ticket to having the same thing everyone has.

It’s time to welcome the chameleon into your home! These people are not part of the normal people’s pet collection. Not everyone has a chameleon. with both their eyes going in different directions. They are a completely new addition. And how do you take care of them? If you understand these three principles You are ready to have strong chameleons. They are:

1. Lighting

2. Humidity

3. Environment

Let’s get started with lighting. There are two types of bulbs you’ll need for basic chameleon treatment. You will need a UVA/UVB lamp and a tanning lamp. The first light bulb mentioned was responsible for mimicking the sun’s light. The sun gives off UVA light, which is what you and I see. This will help bring out the color of your chameleon. This bulb also provides UVB radiation, which helps the chameleon synthesize vitamin D3. This will help him/her to make good use of the amount of calcium they consume. Next, you’ll need a tanning lamp. This bulb will provide the heat needed for the chameleon to warm up. This is important because reptiles are cold-blooded and must be able to control their temperature.

after you dim the light You will need to provide a light source to increase the humidity. This can be a very easy thing to do, and it’s important to consider that the area from the humidity is damp. You can mist several times a day. This is often effective at keeping the humidity high. However, if staying at home to do this is a problem. There is another option. You can buy a cool vapor humidifier and let it run. If you don’t want this method There is another method that is very popular. You can purchase an automatic misting system, such as a misting system. This will allow you to set the mist on a timer that will go out throughout the day and to mist the cage. in my opinion, This is the best and most cost-effective method. All these methods will be helpful in drinking water for your little pet.

Finally, the environment must be properly set up. The cabinet frame shall be a screened configuration for the purpose of proper airflow. It has to be the right size for your chameleon’s size. After achieving these fundamentals It’s time to unleash that imagination. Decorate the cage with many living plants and fakes. Place vines all over the cage to allow them to climb. Make sure there is a place under the sunbathing spot for him. Allow some of the cages to darken to allow different temperatures. Avoid using substrates as they can be swallowed up and become bad news for your chameleon. Make it look like a forest with open spaces.

Remember, this is just a basic guide to chameleon care. It does not refer to any particular type of chameleon. If you want to know the specifics of a certain animal More research needs to be done. Temperature, humidity, cage size, and flora are all subjects to study for some animals. Good luck and have fun owning a chameleon!


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