Laser technologies and their use

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Laser equipment and technologies are a set of technical devices with the help of which laser radiation undergoes the processes of generation, reception and conversion. The reports and abstracts on the use of laser technologies reflect the huge leap that has taken place in this area since the discovery of physical phenomena that served as the basis for the creation of a laser.

Laser is a quantum generator of electromagnetic waves in the visible range of the spectrum, based on the stimulated emission of atoms and molecules.

Development of laser technologies in the modern world

The development of laser technologies in the modern world, due to the breadth of its application, is practically not inferior in growth rates to microelectronics, which has embraced to one degree or another all the main spheres of human activity. This is primarily due to the unique ability of lasers to concentrate light energy in space. In this regard, various directions have arisen, including:

  • laser processing of materials;
  • thermonuclear fusion;
  • laser chemistry;
  • laser spectroscopy;
  • and many others.

The rapid demand for lasers sends back to the distant history many analog methods of processing materials in production. Until recently, many did not have the slightest idea about this technology.  Thanks to the unique technical properties, the capabilities of manufacturing enterprises have expanded significantly. Using a laser beam you can:

  • drill;
  • harden;
  • spray;
  • weld and cut parts from various materials;
  • mark and engrave;
  • check the quality of parts processing;
  • perform many other equally important tasks

Laser technology demonstrates innovative potential. The use of this technology often leads to a significant improvement in product properties and is the first significant step towards the sale of new products and reduction of production costs.

Types of technologies

Laser technologies can be conditionally divided into two types. The first is distinguished by fine focusing of the beam and the most accurate dosing of energy, low power, both in pulsed and continuous modes.

The main area of ​​application for weak devices is related to:

  • For cutting and welding small parts in the electronics and electro-vacuum industry.
  • With the marking of elements, the burning of numbers, letters, and so on.

The second type of LT is based on the use of devices with medium and high power: from 1 kW and above. Powerful devices are used in such energy-intensive work as:

  • Cutting and welding of strong steel sheets, external hardening, melting and alloying of large elements.
  • Cleaning structures from dirt, cutting marble, granite, cutting fabric materials, leather and so on.

When welding metals with a laser, the highest weld quality is achieved and the operation of vacuum chambers is not required.

What is a laser or laser source

It is difficult to find a person who has not heard anything about lasers. However, many people associate them with something supernatural, possibly with space weapons. However, the laser is no longer a fantasy, but a working tool used in various fields of human activity.

Despite the fact that not much time has passed since their production, they have become widespread in everyday life, opening up a huge variety of new areas for humanity for activities from medicine to digital technology and heavy industries.

A laser is an extremely concentrated light flux emitted by synchronous sources in a narrow directional range. Such an instrument consists of a special tube with a solid crystal inside. At both ends, it is covered with mirrors: transparent and not completely transparent.

Under the influence of the electrical winding, the atoms of the crystal generate light waves. The waves, moving from one mirror to another, gradually gain an intensity sufficient to pass through an incompletely transparent mirror, converting the received energy into a light beam, a stream of photons of high concentration.

In the process of researching the nature and properties of lasers, various types of these beams have been developed. According to the state of the initial substance, they can be gaseous, liquid. Solid state or free electrons.

Demand for laser equipment and technologies

Lasers occupy a significant, and sometimes even a key place in a wide variety of fields. With the introduction of modern technologies, the cost of equipment is decreasing every day, which has a huge impact on its distribution around the world. The high level of equipping with high-quality laser equipment today is one of the main criteria for assessing the high level of industrialization of a particular production.

At the moment, the laser industry is considered one of the leading industries. The share of energy that the laser industry in developed countries uses today is growing rapidly.

Application methods

Most devices of this type form a pencil-sized or smaller beam of light and maintain its size and direction over very long distances. This sharply focused coherent light beam is suitable for a wide variety of applications.

Laser applications have comprehensive solutions in a wide range of applications from scientific research, biomedicine and the environment to industrial materials processing, microelectronics, avionics and entertainment. Applications include laser optics and neurology, laser scanning microscopy and so on.

Treatment lasers

Narrow coherent light flux used in medicine is the most important high-tech medical technology in this century. The application of lasers applies to all clinical disciplines such as ophthalmology, dermatology, surgery, dentistry, oncology, cancer, etc. The laser is a revolutionary breakthrough in treatment, and different wavelengths are suitable for different therapeutic areas. For example, laser treatment of periodontitis is effective.

In medicine, they are used in surgical operations. For example, as glaucoma of the eye. Using a laser

Application in optogenetics and neurobiology

Optogenetics is a rapidly developing interdisciplinary biotechnology technology. This technology requires high spatial and temporal resolution due to the specificity of the study of cells.

The use of lasers overcomes the shortcomings of traditional methods of controlling the activity of cells and the body, and also provides a revolutionary method for researching neurobiology. Areas of research include basic nervous system research, memory research and research, addiction research, dyskinesia, sleep disorders, parkinsonism, depressive disorder, anxiety disorder, etc.

Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. It is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics, medicine, genetics, and related disciplines including philosophy, physics, and psychology.

The field of narrow beam neuroscience has expanded to include various approaches used to study the molecular, cellular, evolutionary, structural, functional, evolutionary, computational, and medical aspects of the nervous system.

The field of application of the laser in research includes the observation of viable cellular structure and specific molecular, ionic biological changes, pharmacology, genetics, spectroscopy and related subjects.

Communication and data transmission

Laser communication is a wireless connection in the atmosphere. Now it can transmit information at data rates of up to several Gbps and at a distance of thousands of kilometers from each other.

The modulator processes the laser information by adjusting the amplitude, frequency, or phase.

Laser communication has the advantages of low transmission loss, long transmission distance, high communication quality, high bandwidth, reliable privacy, and lighting structure.

Reasons for the success of lasers

The tremendous success of lasers is based primarily on the many benefits of this technology. The main arguments in favor of their application, which ultimately lead to significant savings in time and financial costs:

  • maximum automation;
  • high accuracy;
  • increased productivity;
  • contactless work;
  • environmental friendliness;
  • innovative potential.

The ability to customize processing parameters allows you to interact with materials of different thicknesses and densities without noticeable delays.

Sphere of application of laser technologies and laser machines.

The demand for them continues to grow.  With the advent of lasers, it was possible to achieve:

  • production automation;
  • high speed of parts processing;
  • reducing the amount of post-processing parts;
  • the final minimization of costs;
  • improving the quality of the process.

A popular technological solution used for the processing of sheet and pipe products is laser welding. There is tremendous potential for productivity gains here, even with small to medium batch sizes.

The main advantages of this type of welding are the high speed of the production process, as well as the unsurpassed quality of the welds. The need for additional processing in this case practically disappears. Moreover, one of the main advantages of laser welding is the minimal overheating of the heat-affected zone.

Laser technologies in various industries

Lasers are especially in demand for performing various cosmetic, dental, surgical and ophthalmic operations. This solution is ideal because of the small size of the laser beam and the incredibly high speed of exposure.

There are an incredible number of them and innovations appear every year. Every day, such technologies are replacing other ineffective ones and are becoming indispensable. Lasers are used:

  • in mechanical engineering;
  • automotive industry;
  • in the production of electrical devices and semiconductors;
  • when creating medical equipment;
  • in jewelry;
  • in the aerospace industry.

Regardless of whether it is medicine, research, instrumentation or telecommunications, lasers have long been an integral part of our lives. Laser technologies are also used in education.

The use of lasers allows us to meet the most diverse requirements of modern industry, as well as to obtain enormous benefits, despite the rather high cost of equipment.

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